Customized rate limiting for API Gateway by path parameter, query parameter, and more

API Gateway provides a feature to limit the number of requests a client can make per second (rate) and per day/week/month (quota). Rate limiting is very useful to protect your system from resource starvation caused by a client flooding your system with requests. Quotas are more useful to protect against data scrapers or to limit the number of expensive operations a client can perform without paying appropriately.

You have to combine two features of API Gateway to implement rate limiting: Usage plans and API keys. API keys are used to identify the client while a usage plan defines the rate limit for a set of API keys and tracks their usage. Clients are expected to send the API key as the HTTP X-API-Key header. However, what about using a path parameter to identify the client like /v1/some-client-id/task or a query parameter like /v1/task?clientId=some-client-id? In this article, you learn to use a Custom Authorizer to extract a parameter from the path and use the value as the API Key. You can follow the same approach to extract the API Key value from a query parameter or the body.

Custom Authorizer

A Custom Authorizer is implemented by a Lambda function to execute custom logic. Every request to the API Gateway first invokes the Custom Authorizer. The Custom Authorizer returns an access policy (policyDocument) and the API key value (usageIdentifierKey). API Gateway takes the result from the Custom Authorizer, checks if the API key exists and if the client is allowed to make the request according to the access policy.

Create the Lambda function:

  1. Author a Lambda function from scratch
  2. Set a Name
  3. Set the Runtime to Node.js 8.10
  4. Set Role to Create a new role from one or more templates to create a new IAM role for the Lambda function
  5. Set a Role Name
  6. Click Create function to save

The following Lambda function code uses the value of the path parameter clientId as the API key value and allows access to all API resources and methods.

exports.handler = async (event) => {
if ('pathParameters' in event && 'clientId' in event.pathParameters) { // check if the path parameter is present
return {
principalId: event.pathParameters.clientId,
policyDocument: {
Version: '2012-10-17',
Statement: [{ // allow all HTTP methods on all resources
Action: 'execute-api:Invoke',
Effect: 'Allow',
Resource: `arn:aws:execute-api:us-east-1:*:${event.requestContext.apiId}/*`
}]
},
usageIdentifierKey: event.pathParameters.clientId // the value of path parameter clientId is used as the API key value
};
} else {
throw new Error('path parameter clientId missing');
}
};

Once the Lambda function is in place you can create the Custom Authorizer in API Gateway:

  1. Set a Name
  2. Select the Lambda Function you created earlier
    Create API Gateway custom authorizer
  3. Set the Lambda Event Payload to Request
  4. Set the Identity Sources to Context apiId
  5. Disable Authorization Caching
  6. Click Create to save
  7. You are asked to grant permissions
    Create API Gateway Custom Authorizer

Unfortunately, you can not use a path parameter as an Identity Source. We use the API id which is the same for all requests. Therefore, it is important to disable Authorization Caching. Otherwise, all requests (no matter what path parameter used) would use the same API key value from the cached authorizer response. Confusingly, a query parameter is valid Identity Source.

Configuring API Gateway

By default, API Gateway does not use the usageIdentifierKey value of the Custom Authorizer. You have to turn this behavior on explicitly.

Configure API Gateway to use the Custom Authorizer to return the API key value

Protecting a resource

To protect a resource with a Custom Authorizer, you have to configure the Method Request.

  1. Ensure that you have the path parameter clientId in the path of the resource
    Protecting a resource
  2. Set Authorization to the authorizer you created
  3. Set API Key Required to true

If you send a GET request to the resource /550e8400-e29b-11d4-a716-446655440000/task, you get a 403 error with the message Forbidden. The problem: The API Key with the value 550e8400-e29b-11d4-a716-446655440000 does not exist. Let’s change that.

Creating an API Key

To create an API Key:

  1. In the sub-navigation, click on API Keys
    Creating an API Key
  2. Push the Actions button and click on Create API key
  3. Set a Name
  4. Select API key to Custom and provide the value that you want to use for the path parameter clientId (e.g., 550e8400-e29b-11d4-a716-446655440000)
  5. Click Save

The HTTP request still doesn’t work. You have to assign the API Key with a Usage plan.

To create a Usage Plan:

  1. In the sub-navigation, click on Usage Plans
    Creating a Usage Plan: Step 1/3
  2. Push the Create button
  3. Set a Name
  4. Imagine that each API Key can save future requests to an account. The Rate determines how many future requests are saved per second.
  5. The Burst value determines the maximum amount of future requests that an API Key can save. In other words: In the long run, an API Key cannot make more than Rate requests per second. However, short term, an API Key can make Burst requests per second.
  6. Disable quota
  7. Click Next to go to the next step
  8. Click Add API Stage
    Creating a Usage Plan: Step 2/3
  9. Select the API and Stage
  10. Click on the OK icon to save and Next to go to the next step
  11. Click on Add API Key to Usage Plan
    Creating a Usage Plan: Step 3/3
  12. Select the API Key
  13. Click on the OK icon to save and Done to finish

Now, if you send a GET request to the resource /550e8400-e29b-11d4-a716-446655440000/task, you get a 200 success. If you send more than 1 request per second for some time, you get a 429 error with the message Too Many Requests. Just wait a few seconds, and you can continue with a new request that works.

Pitfalls

  1. You have to keep the API Keys on sync with your client database. Whenever you add a new client, don’t forget to create an API Key with the correct Usage Plan mapping as well.
  2. An API Key has a name, id, and value. The user of your API provides the API Key value while API Gateway cares about the id (e.g., to delete an API Key).
  3. If you run multiple APIs in a single region, make sure that your API Key values do not overlap. They all share the same namespace.
  4. SNS HTTPS subscriptions do not retry on 429. Only on 5XX responses. If you send requests to an API Gateway using SNS, that’s a problem. Workaround: You can configure API Gateway to return 5XX errors instead of 429 (which might or might not be a solution).

Summary

You can configure API Gateway to rate limit requests based on a parameter in the path with some tricks. The benefit of Usage Plans is that API Gateway itself protects your system without involving any datastore from your end. You don’t have to worry about an overloaded rate limiting system.

Published on


Subscribe now and we'll keep you posted about new content on our blog.

We are raffling our book AWS in Action among all newsletter subscribers.

Newsletter RSS Feedly
Michael Wittig

Michael Wittig

I’m the author of Amazon Web Services in Action. I work as a software engineer, and independent consultant focused on AWS and DevOps.

Is anything missing in my article? I'm looking forward to your feedback! @hellomichibye or michael@widdix.de.

marbot

Are you part of a highly motivated DevOps team? Use marbot, a friendly chatbot, to forward all kind of alerts from your AWS infrastructure to Slack. Alerts are escalated across your team automatically allowing you to focus on your daily work.

Amazon Web Services in Action (Second Edition)

Amazon Web Services in Action (Second Edition) introduces you to computing, storing, and networking in the AWS cloud.